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the enclase

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The Enclase Video

Could you argue the Enclave are good guys in FO3? - Rethinking Fallout 3

The enclase -

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The skull was placed by the photographer in wet grass near a riverbank and dressed with cut flowers, a memento mori. In the background, members of Mai Mai Kifuafua, a Tembo defence militia, watch tensely.

This photograph was taken in February Untitled Untitled The youngest victim of a massacre in central Masisi Territory in which six people were killed, all of them women and children.

The women were first raped, then slaughtered by machete or a spear strike to the back of the neck. This boy, aged three, was killed by repeated spear strike directly to the middle of his tiny face, leaving a large red hole that exposed the inside of his skull.

These victims were Hunde, allegedly massacred by a Congolese Hutu militia known as Nyatura. I asked a Nyatura leader about the murders.

As the photograph was taken, Hutu families gathered together for safety at Katale following a massacre, allegedly by Hunde paramilitaries.

Many of those living here fled attacks by Raia Mutomboki groups. The Raia are notorious for carrying out raids bare-chested, wearing only raffia skirts, banging drums, and singing war songs, before killing entire families by spear and machete.

Many residents of the Rubaya camp recounted this kind of incident from their own experience. Sickness is rife inside the camp.

An estimated , lived in Rubaya camp at this time. Shortly after this photograph was taken, in early March , armed men from Raiya Mutomboki massacred 32 unarmed civilians, mainly Hutus, in Bunyakiri.

The FDLR carried out reprisal massacres in May of the same year, killing 51 unarmed civilians in nearby villages.

These events have led to a series of tit-for-tat massacres, the largest of which saw a death toll of unarmed civilians. The violence has displaced hundreds of thousands of people, who have fled violence and take refuge in squalid conditions within sprawling camps that lack adequate sanitation.

Recent shifts in alliances between armed groups, and the overall balance of power in the region, has made this part of Walikale particularly unsettled.

Anna was born into, lives and travels with this nomadic armed group. It is common for children to form a part of rebel life, to grow up in the midst of conflict.

This rich pastureland is fiercely fought over in an escalating territorial conflict. Originally owned by indigenous Congolese tribes, who subsist by growing crops and hunting bush meat, this landscape was seized by militias from pastoralist tribes, such as Tutsi encroaching from neighbouring Rwanda, who have cut the primordial forests to create pasture for their nomadic cattle herds.

Weakened and cut off from much of their leadership, eventually the remainder of Enclave personnel stationed in New California that did not retreat prior were finally shattered by the combined might of the Brotherhood of Steel and the New California Republic.

But beforehand, Autumn Senior led the majority of surviving Enclave personnel east, to the ruins of Washington D. Those who remained why Autumn Senior and his subordinates left so few of the remnant personnel behind in New California to begin with, remains an unsolved mystery were hunted by the Brotherhood and the NCR, while some tried to integrate themselves into the NCR and met temporarily minimal success, [19] from time to time stories will crop up of an elderly Enclave veteran that was caught integrating being executed or arrested.

When President Richardson was vaporized, ZAX created a persona, John Henry Eden to claim the post and assume authority over the remaining California Enclave forces, in addition to resuming construction of military ordnance [20] to provide for the resource-stricken subordinates.

Augustus Autumn was chosen as the commanding officer of the armed forces eventually succeeding his father.

A series of eyebots were sent to roam the Wasteland, spreading hope and patriotism. Eden could spout his pro-government rhetoric, and promise a return of the pre-War America of legend: He had learned of an extremely ambitious scientific experiment known as Project Purity , and knew the time to strike had come: By controlling the purified water supply, Eden would control the Capital Wasteland , and eventually the rest of the country.

What better way to administer a Modified FEV virus, which kills anyone irradiated or mutated in any way, than through a deceptively clean water supply?

Enclave propaganda found in the Capital Wasteland. When Project Purity was restarted in , the Enclave acted at once.

Troops under Autumn occupied the Purifier, and established a presence in the wastes, setting up checkpoints and establishing Constituency Enforcement Points, which was resisted by the Brotherhood of Steel.

After retrieving a Garden of Eden Creation Kit from Vault 87 , Eden attempted to recruit the individual known as the Lone Wanderer to work as a double agent, participating in the Brotherhood's attempted reclamation of Project Purity but infecting the water supply with the modified FEV at the last moment.

Eden was opposed by Colonel Autumn, who wanted to make a bid to lead the populace by completing and activating the purifier, thus providing the Enclave with a strong bargaining chip in their bid to unify the wastes under their flag.

When the Brotherhood took the Jefferson Memorial, Autumn was defeated by the Lone Wanderer, but it is not known whether he survived.

The Lone Wanderer stood poised to finally realize the Enclave's original Project to purify the wasteland, but it is unknown to history whether or not they took that action.

It is stated by Deacon in the Commonwealth that he misses the Capital Wasteland, and that you could "actually drink the water there," which implies the Lone Wanderer activated Project Purity and did not in fact infect the water supply with the FEV.

However, Deacon is a compulsive liar and may be saying this ironically. The definitive fate of the entire Enclave itself as a whole, as well as its military division after the unclear events transpiring in the Capital Wasteland remains an unsolved mystery.

However, it should be noted that, by , a group of Enclave elite troopers, known as the Enclave remnants , are in hiding in the Mojave and, by , the East Coast Brotherhood of Steel has thrived and increased its power exponentially.

This would seem to suggest that the Enclave has finally been defeated or, at least, that they no longer have any central command that could provide the remnants with refuge or could challenge the Brotherhood.

Supporting this further is Grand Zealot Richter , a former Enclave soldier turned Child of Atom from the Far Harbor add-on, who says that the Enclave were once a force to be reckoned with, but it's been a long time since then.

Now contending with malcontent soldiers, ragged Enclave camps dot the Wasteland with little communication to and from the others.

With the conventional Enclave military experiencing a lack of new recruits and the high command remaining silent, the Enclave would seem to be a doomed force.

Previously posted to remote and classified locations outside of the Capital Wasteland, only the most elite of Enclave personnel, trained in multiple forms of combat, can earn the right to belong to Sigma.

Furthermore, Squad Sigma members are experienced fighters, each member being a hardened veteran of numerous successful combat operations.

Sigma Squads are posted around locations deemed by Enclave high command as imperative to the salvation of the cause. In the year on the west coast, a few elderly Enclave survivors make an existence on the fringes of, or near, the borders of NCR territory, keeping their heads down for fear of persecution.

Enclave remnants may have supported the Courier at the Second Battle of Hoover Dam , either desperate for a final shot at glory and to exact revenge on the NCR, or assist them against the Legion.

ED-E's programming contained a message saying that any repairs needed on the way were to be made by Chicago Enclave personnel, indicating that there are Enclave outposts there.

They were relocated to the rig after the bombs fell, and it served as their main headquarters until its sabotage by a tribal from Arroyo known as the " Chosen One ".

Navarro was an old oil refinery that served mainly as a refueling stop for Enclave Vertibirds carrying out missions in or around California, as well as a general go-to base of operations outside of the Oil Rig.

The Navarro perimeter is patrolled by Enclave Control Company light teams , that operate independent from Navarro base's commanding officer.

Mariposa was a pre-War U. After the war, it was taken over by the Master who used it to create an army of super mutants. After the Master's defeat and the base's destruction at the hands of the Vault Dweller , it was excavated by the Enclave, but abandoned when their newly mutated slaves rebelled against them.

Raven Rock was the Enclave's main base of operation in President Eden asks for the Lone Wanderer to be released so that the Lone Wanderer can be spoken to privately.

The facility was used primarily to coordinate the remainder of Enclave forces following the devastating defeat at the Purifier. During an offensive by the Brotherhood of Steel led by Liberty Prime , the defending forces of the Station contacted the mobile base crawler to call down an orbital strike on the robot's position.

Liberty Prime was destroyed, but shortly afterward the Station was lost to the Brotherhood. Located just outside the Capital Wasteland and accessible through the presidential metro , the base facilities housed some of the Enclave's Vertibirds and was defended by squads of soldiers and artillery emplacements.

The heart of Enclave operations in the area was the mobile base crawler, which featured a satellite communications dish capable of calling down an orbital strike from the Bradley-Hercules orbital weapons platform.

It could also have been used to destroy the Citadel , but this outcome is non-canon. The Brotherhood would soon take control of Adams Air Force Base in its entirety, claiming the leftover Vertibirds for itself and using the field to construct The Prydwen.

Before the Great War , the Enclave devoted a considerable amount of resources to the "Congressional Bunker" project.

Vault-Tec Corporation was principally involved in the bunker's construction beneath the Whitespring Resort in West Virginia , and the Department of Agriculture was used to cover-up the purchase and transportation of shipments of high-tech machinery and weapons, including the artificial intelligence MODUS , for the bunker.

Congress members, Federal officials, and military staff who were part of the Enclave moved into the bunker shortly after the onset of the Great War , where they continued to observe the nation in complete secrecy.

Sometime before , the Scorched Plague penetrated the bunker and infected all of the human inhabitants, converting them into Scorched. Prior to Prussia alone consisted of more than discontiguous pieces of territory.

Residing in an enclave within another country has often involved difficulties in such areas as passage rights, importing goods, currency, provision of utilities and health services, and host nation cooperation.

Thus, over time, enclaves have tended to be eliminated. For example, two-thirds of the then-existing national-level enclaves were extinguished on August 1, , when the governments of India and Bangladesh implemented a Land Boundary Agreement that exchanged first-order enclaves Indian and 51 Bangladeshi.

This exchange thus effectively de-enclaved another two dozen second-order enclaves and one third-order enclave, eliminating of the Indo-Bangladesh enclaves in all.

The residents in these enclaves had complained of being effectively stateless. Only Bangladesh's Dahagram—Angarpota enclave remained.

For illustration, in the figure above , A1 is a semi-enclave attached to C and also bounded by water that only touches C's territorial water.

Although A2 is an exclave of A, it cannot be classed as an enclave because it shares borders with B and C.

The territory A3 is both an exclave of A and an enclave from the viewpoint of B. The singular territory D, although an enclave, is not an exclave. An enclave is a part of the territory of a state that is enclosed within the territory of another state.

To distinguish the parts of a state entirely enclosed in a single other state, they are called true enclaves. Vinokurov calls this the restrictive definition of "enclave" given by international law, which thus "comprises only so-called 'true enclaves'".

The definition of a territory comprises both land territory and territorial waters. In the case of enclaves in territorial waters, they are called maritime those surrounded by territorial sea or lacustrine if in a lake enclaves.

While subnational enclaves are numerous the world over, there are only a few national-level true enclaves in Africa, Australia and the Americas each such enclave being surrounded by the territorial waters of another country.

An historical example is West Berlin before the reunification of Germany. Since , all of Berlin was ruled de jure by the four Allied powers.

Also, 12 small West Berlin enclaves, such as Steinstücken , were separated from the city, some by only a few meters. Historically, four Bantustans or "Black homelands" of South Africa were granted nominal independence, unrecognized internationally, by the Apartheidist government from until their reabsorption in Others remained under government rule from to Being heavily partitioned, various parts of these Bantustans were true enclaves.

The United States' constitutional principle of tribal sovereignty treats federally-recognized Indian reservations as quasi-independent enclaves.

To establish jurisdiction, the Scottish Court in the Netherlands , at Camp Zeist near Utrecht , was temporarily declared as sovereign territory of the United Kingdom under Scots law for the duration of the trial of those accused in the Lockerbie bombing , and was therefore an exclave of the United Kingdom and of Scotland , and an enclave within the Netherlands.

This was also so during the appeal against the conviction. The court was first convened in , and the land returned to the Netherlands in True exclave is an extension of the concept of true enclave.

In order to access a true exclave from the mainland, a traveller must go through the territory of at least one other state.

Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves. Vinokurov declares, "Technically, Portugal , Denmark , and Canada also border only one foreign state, but they are not enclosed in the geographical, political, or economic sense.

They have vast access to international waters. At the same time, there are states that, although in possession of sea access, are still enclosed by the territories of a foreign state.

Thus a state is classified as a sovereign semi-enclave if it borders on just one state, and its land boundary is longer than its sea coastline.

Sometimes, administrative divisions of a country, for historical or practical reasons, caused some areas to belong to one division while being attached to another.

The term pene -exclave was defined in Robinson as "parts of the territory of one country that can be approached conveniently — in particular by wheeled traffic — only through the territory of another country.

Pene-enclaves are also called functional enclaves or practical enclaves. A commonly cited example is the Kleinwalsertal , a valley part of Vorarlberg , Austria, that is only accessible from Germany to the north, being separated from the rest of Austria by high mountains traversed by no roads.

Hence, such areas are enclaves or exclaves for practical purposes , without meeting the strict definition.

Many pene-exclaves partially border the sea or another body of water, which comprises their own territorial waters i. They border their own territorial waters in addition to a land border with another country, and hence they are not true exclaves.

Still, one cannot travel to them on land without going through another country. Attribution of a pene-enclave status to a territory can sometimes be disputed, depending on whether the territory is considered to be practically inaccessible from the mainland or not.

It is possible for an enclave of one country to be completely surrounded by a part of another country that is itself an enclave of the first country.

These enclaves are sometimes called counter-enclaves. An ethnic enclave is a community of an ethnic group inside an area in which another ethnic group predominates.

Ghettos , Little Italys , barrios and Chinatowns are examples. These areas may have a separate language, culture and economic system.

Diplomatic missions, such as embassies and consulates, as well as military bases, are usually exempted from the jurisdiction of the host country, i.

This exemption from the jurisdiction of the host country is defined as extraterritoriality. Areas and buildings enjoying some forms of extraterritoriality are not true enclaves since, in all cases, the host country retains full sovereignty.

In addition to embassies, some other areas enjoy a limited form of extraterritoriality. Most instances are exempt from taxes. Nonetheless, for a person's offence against the property itself, equally valid jurisdiction in criminal matters is more likely than elsewhere, assuming the perpetrator is found in the prosecuting authority's homeland.

Changes in borders can make a railway that was previously located solely within a country traverse the new borders. Since diverting a railway is expensive, this arrangement may last a long time.

This may mean that doors on passenger trains are locked and guarded to prevent illicit entry and exit while the train is temporarily in another country.

Borders can also be in the "wrong" place, forcing railways into difficult terrain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Enclave disambiguation. List of enclaves and exclaves. Explicative diagram of territorial discontinuities: Different territories countries, states, counties, municipalities, etc.

A1 and A2 are not enclaves: In topological terms, A and E are each sets of non-connected surfaces , and B, C and D are connected surfaces.

However, C and D are also simply connected surfaces , while B is not it has genus 2 , the number of "holes" in B. Position of Lesotho within South Africa.

List of countries that border only one other country. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. The Theory of Enclaves.

Lexington Books, Lanham, MD. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. A right possessed by one person with respect to another's property, consisting either of a right to use the other's property, or a power to prevent certain uses of it.

Archived from the original on The former military base at Camp Zeist in Holland has been under Scottish jurisdiction for more than three years.

The base was converted into a prison and a courtroom to provide the venue for the Lockerbie trial — the largest and most expensive ever conducted under Scots law.

These have virtually the same characteristics as complete enclaves exclaves. Makonnen in Recueil Des Cours, Transfer of Walvis Bay to Namibia Act, Archived at the Wayback Machine.

Although the Jervis Bay Territory is not part of the Australian Capital Territory, the laws of the ACT apply, in so far as they are applicable and, providing they are not inconsistent with an Ordinance, in the Territory by virtue of the Jervis Bay Acceptance Act Retrieved 17 January Caracas, Distrito Capital, Venezuela: Retrieved October 1, Retrieved October 29, As in almost all examples in this list the parcel remains fully, in jurisdiction, that of the host country.

Retrieved 15 Feb Google docs [unofficial copy]. Kennedy Memorial Act, ". The Modern Law Review. Retrieved 8 August The Best of Maine Railroads.

Retrieved 21 May Retrieved July 7, The Unofficial Minnesota Highways Page. Archived from the original PDF on Border bridges rebuilt Archived May 3, , at the Wayback Machine.

Malayan Railway land in Singapore". Retrieved 26 February Designations for types of administrative territorial entities. Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area Urban area.

County borough Metropolitan borough. Federal capital Imperial capital. Autonomous community Residential community. Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county Non-metropolitan Viscountcy.

Capital district City district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district Non-metropolitan district Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special district.

Census division Police division Subdivision. City municipality County municipality Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality Direct-controlled municipality District municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality.

National Archives, College Park, Maryland: March , "Treaty negotiations: Department of State internal message CS1 maint: United States Department of State.

Retrieved 6 January Retrieved from " https: Enclaves and exclaves Border-related lists. Julian—Gregorian uncertainty CS1 maint: Views Read Edit View history.

This page was last edited on 28 October , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Map all coordinates using: Paraguay Misiones Department — Ayolas District.

Island areas are about , Designated as a nature reserve under the jurisdiction of Argentina in Controlled by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in Torres Strait Islands 7.

The territorial sea of each island does not extend beyond three nautical miles. Austria Tyrol state — Reutte District. Germany Bavaria state — Swabia administrative region.

Connected at a quadripoint at the summit of the mountain Sorgschrofen m ; accessible only through Germany. Vinokurov states, "For all purposes, a connection in a single point does not mean anything.

It is just like being completely separated. One cannot pass through a single point, nor is it possible to transport goods.

It is not even possible to lay a telephone line. Two farmland enclaves just across the border from the village of Yaradullu [6] [7] 55 m at the closest point.

They are m and m southwest of the municipality of Tatli on the west bank of the Akhum River; approximately x m and x m. The surrounding Armenian territory has been occupied by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May , so that these two small pockets of land are de facto no longer exclaves.

Bangladesh Rangpur Division — Lalmonirhat district. India West Bengal state — Cooch Behar district. Dahagram—Angarpota is a composite enclave of two adjoining chhits.

The enclave has an estimated population of 20, After the exchange of enclaves with India under the Land Boundary Agreement on 31 July , Bangladesh retained it as an exclave.

Belgium Antwerp province — Baarle-Hertog municipality. Netherlands North Brabant province — Baarle-Nassau municipality. A group of 22 Belgian enclaves in the southern Netherlands.

Enclaves H1 and H2 are connected at a single point. Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska — Rudo municipality. Serbia Zlatibor District — Priboj municipality.

Home land of Bosnia-Herzegovina is 1, meters to the north. Sastavci is the name of the neighboring village in Serbia.

Croatia Karlovac County — Ozalj town. The first enclave contains four dwellings surrounded by agricultural land near the Slovenian village of Brezovica pri Metliki.

It is about m long and 60 m wide covering 1. Confirmed by both Croatian and Slovenian cadaster maps, it lies about meters away from the main border at the closest point.

Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area. One of four small exclaves surrounded by Dhekelia , a British Overseas Territory in southeastern Cyprus.

North of Dhekelia Power Station from which it is separated by a British road; the closest point between the two exclaves is 21 meters. West of Vennbahn trackbed; northernmost German enclave, mainly home to industrial and warehouse structures.

From to , the center portion between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach stream was Belgian territory.

Until , the east—west road that connected the two outer German portions was also German territory; therefore, the German land formed one oddly-shaped enclave that also included the road to Konzen.

In , it was split into two enclaves when Germany ceded the roads to Belgium ; [21] in , Belgium returned the east-west road and also ceded the center section of the current enclave to Germany.

Part of city of Monschau, west of Vennbahn trackbed; smallest German exclave, consisting of a house and a garden. West of Belgium 's Vennbahn trackbed.

Germany Baden-Württemberg state — Konstanz district. Italy Lombardy region — Province of Como. Switzerland Canton Ticino — Lugano District.

Part of Swiss customs and uses the Swiss franc , but its inhabitants have to pay income tax to Italy, though in a reduced measure.

Kyrgyzstan's pre-independence border is the de jure international border, but much of it is hotly disputed with its neighbors.

In August , the area around Barak was occupied by Uzbekistan , cutting it off from Kyrgyz territory.

Uzbek forces dug up and blockaded the road to Ak-Tash [23] while also allegedly seizing large areas of Kyrgyz land that had been loaned in the Soviet era but never returned.

Malawi Northern Region - Likoma District. Mozambique Niassa Province — Lago District. Chizumulu Island incl Lundu Is.

Seven of the eight Dutch enclaves are counter-enclaves inside two Belgian enclaves H1 and H8 ; one is in the main body of Belgium N8.

Laguna Los Portillos and beach. Nicaragua was left with just the Laguna Los Portillos and its short strip of beach.

The court also decided that the sea just outside of the lagoon would be Costa Rican waters. The ICJ concluded that the whole beach is Costa Rican except for the part directly between the lagoon and the Caribbean Sea — now a tiny enclave of Nicaraguan territory separated from the rest of the country.

Russia Bryansk Oblast — Zlynkovsky District. Belarus Gomel Region — Dobrush Raion. Contains two small villages which have been depopulated since the Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine.

Tajikistan Sughd Province — Isfara District. Kyrgyzstan Batken Province — Batken District. Kyrgyzstan Batken Province — Leilek District. Near the railway station of Stantsiya Kayragach , next to the Kyrgyz—Tajik border; also referred to as "Western Qal'acha" due to proximity to the Tajik town of Qal'acha; apparently there is no named settlement.

Sarvan also Sarvaksoi, Sarvaki-bolo. Tajikistan Sughd Province — Asht District. Uzbekistan Namangan Province — Pap district. Long, narrow territory located in the Fergana and Isfara valleys region where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet.

United Arab Emirates Sharjah emirate. A counter-enclave surrounded by Madha , reported to consist of around forty houses. Uzbekistan Fergana Province — Sokh district.

Uzbekistan Fergana Province — Fergana district. Kyrgyzstan Batken Province — Kadamjay District. Chon-Qora or Qalacha the 2 Uzbek villages in the enclave.

The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet contains three characters not present in the Uzbek alphabet. One of these characters is romanized from Kyrgyz as the digraph " ng ," which is not present in romanized Uzbek words.

Jani-Ayil also Jangy-ayyl or Khalmion. Peanut Hole , High Seas [33]. EEZs are not areas of sovereignty, but rather of sovereign rights and functional jurisdiction.

Füzuli Rayon is partially occupied and controlled by its forces. Minsk Region Minsk and Smalyavichy Raions. Minsk Region Minsk Raion.

Oromia Region Misraq Welega Zone. The first two of the three enclaves are close in distance and lie near or on the Highway 5 route between Jogir and Arjo.

Both parts of Hansestadt Bremen are enclaves within Lower Saxony, as well as exclaves of each other. Fehrmoor is a part of Leherheide, which is a sub-division of Bremerhaven.

Part of Fehrmoor is separated by a narrow strip of Lower Saxony from the rest of Bremerhaven, making it an exclave of the city and of the state.

West Bengal Cooch Behar district. Dadra and Nagar Haveli. These events have led to a series of tit-for-tat massacres, the largest of which saw a death toll of unarmed civilians.

The violence has displaced hundreds of thousands of people, who have fled violence and take refuge in squalid conditions within sprawling camps that lack adequate sanitation.

Recent shifts in alliances between armed groups, and the overall balance of power in the region, has made this part of Walikale particularly unsettled.

Anna was born into, lives and travels with this nomadic armed group. It is common for children to form a part of rebel life, to grow up in the midst of conflict.

This rich pastureland is fiercely fought over in an escalating territorial conflict. Originally owned by indigenous Congolese tribes, who subsist by growing crops and hunting bush meat, this landscape was seized by militias from pastoralist tribes, such as Tutsi encroaching from neighbouring Rwanda, who have cut the primordial forests to create pasture for their nomadic cattle herds.

Local populations are dispossessed through intimidation and human rights violations. This photograph was taken from an adjacent hill, directly on the Congo-Rwandan border.

The hills are in Kibumba, north of Goma. The border here is porous and has served as a crossing point for armed groups, especially M23 rebels, and the Rwandan army.

The next day these rebels—a force of less than fifteen hundred—pushed onward for Goma, where they were victorious against FARDC troops and their UN support, which included Indian helicopter gunships.

Witnesses say that Rwandan army troops came across the border to assist the M23, which is widely viewed as a Rwandan proxy force operating in Congo.

This photograph was taken in late October Tombstone Blues Tombstone Blues Kanyaruchinya IDP camp, some ten miles north of Goma, was home to at least sixty thousand refugees, displaced by the M23 from their homes further north, in Rutshuru Territory.

When M23 forces pushed south to take control of Goma, this camp was abruptly abandoned. Fleeing inhabitants stripped the makeshift huts of all their belongings, including the tarpaulin roofs.

Tragically, the front line quickly followed them only a few days later, and they were forced to flee once again, west from Mugunga towards Sake. Simple Twist of Fate Simple Twist of Fate Body of a civilian is taken through the streets of Goma by pushcart on November 19, , the day when M23 rebels took the city.

The situation was very unstable, and the man may have been knocked out or killed in a looting incident. Beaucoups of Blues Beaucoups of Blues This body of water formed part of Lake Kivu until , when it was cut off from the rest of the lake by a stream of lava from Mt Nyiragongo in North Kivu province.

The lava hardened to form the basalt field at the right of the photograph, from which fishermen cast their bait. Nyiragongo has erupted at least thirty-four times since , and remains active.

Author Since: Oct 02, 2012